TOC Analyzers
TOC/BOD/COD/TOD Relationships
How TOC/BOD/COD Correlation Works
Pre-Engineered Systems
Technical Papers
Wastewaters normally contain large floating debris, which must be screened out and other suspended solid materials and oils to be eliminated by chemical additives in the Primary Treatment phase.  Aeration (bubbling air) through the water releases dissolved gases to the atmosphere.  After primary treatment, the wastewater is directed to the Secondary Treatment phase.  Secondary Treatment is used to lower the organic load of soluted organic compounds, either in an aerobic (aerated) or anaerobic (oxygen-free) condition.  Organic load is normally measured by BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) or TOC (Total Organic Carbon).  Settling of small suspended solids, not eliminated in the Primary Treatment phase, occurs, as will the formation of Sludge, caused by biological/biochemical digestion of the organics in the wastewater.  Sludge & Scum (floating matter) are removed prior to the wastewater being directed to a Tertiary System, if used.  Tertiary Treatment may consist of a variety of means to finely filter the water prior to the water Disinfection stage to kill the bacteria and release of the treated Final Effluent to the environment.
During the past number of years, wastewater treatment has become sophisticated, employing various efficient treatment strategies, which require advanced instrumentation to monitor & control such processes as Nitrification/Denitrification, Phosphate removal,  Alkalinity, Sludge Treatment & Analysis prior to disposal, & other analytes required by the application.


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