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Boiler Feedwater, Condensate Return & Make-up Water
A Boiler System is comprised of two main sub-systems:  The furnace, which provides heat to create steam from the boiler water & the boiler vessels, tubing & transfer devices, which control & deliver the steam to process users.  Water quality control is of primary importance to minimize expensive equipment damage & loss of efficiency.  Critical attributes of boiler feedwater, condensate return & make-up water are summarized below & in reference documentation.  Actual operating pressure of the steam has a major influence on the water quality required to minimize damage.  Detailed system analysis is needed on each application, in order to determine an optimum analytical system. 
Boiler feedwater is normally obtained from treated natural waters, which contain TOC, carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, oily matter, suspended solids, dissolved solids, iron, silica, sodium, salts & a variety of other impurities.  Organics, Hydrogen Sulfide & Dissolved Oxygen are major contributors to corrosion.  Organics form organic acids, cause foaming & clogging.  Sulfates, Chlorides, Bicarbonates & Nitrates are formed & result in unacceptable scaling if feedwater hardness is not strictly controlled.  Make-up water is obtained from condensate return & treated natural waters.  Liquid water on the boiler bottom collects all the impurities “flashed out” of the steam in droplets formed in the process, & must be periodically “Blown-Down” (released to drain).

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